Black Box, White Box and Grey Box testing

Black Box, White Box and Grey Box are there most common terms in testing as it is really important. These terms are selections of tests that developers have that is based on their purpose of testing, what is being tested, and they determine which what tools or technologies to be used in order to tackle to problem efficiently.

Firstly, let's talk about Black box testing. This type of test is really common on testing user interface. It treats the program as if it is a "black box", or refer to testing without knowing or be able to change the internal implementation. It is also known among developers as closed or opaque box. The advantage of this type of testing is pretty huge, as developers can focus more on how to test the feature, rather than having to get to know the internal code. It also needs low time to prepare, and designed to simulate the perspective of users. With those potential advantages, the trade off of Black Box testing is also huge, as it might have a chance to have redundancy in tests, and QA engineer has to blindly explore the system without knowing the source of error, if the program has some.

White Box testing is basically opposite to Black Box testing, which allows the QA engineer to fully access to internal data structures and implementation. They are not only able to view the source code, they can also manipulate the code as part of the testing process. This is also known as clear box or open box testing. The advantages could bring a lot of benefits to developers as codes can be tested during the development process of a feature, which allows them to spot out bugs almost immediately. With the ability to access to the internal, QA engineer can use test in order to test for performance and optimization, and also it is a good practice to have code reviewed by multiple developers. The disadvantages can also be huge in contrast to what are mentioned before. White Box testing would require very in depth knowledge about the system and the duration of these test should correspond to the length of the source code, which is a lot. This type of test can also have a big influence from tools from development process that can affects the test cases and it is not scalable in anyway.

And finally, Grey Box testing, which is a combination of Black Box testing, and White Box testing. It allows the QA engineer to see the internal implementation, but cannot modify them directly. The advantages and disadvantages from this, is pretty much also combine between the two previous type of test. Grey Box testing can have the program to be seen as the level of user, while also can use the internal implementation to optimize the test cases. The downside of this is that QA engineer will not be able to change the source code, and have to play around with it multiple times to find a correct way to tackle the problem.

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